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Frost-covered dunes
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Martian North Polar Cap
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Martian Crater
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"Happy Face" Crater
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Newton Crater
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Planum Australe--the Plains of the South. Patchy frost lingers late into Martian spring in this Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) wide angle view from November 25, 1999. Spring would give way to summer in only 1 month, on December 25, 1999. The surfaces underneath the frost have different properties--some get warmer while others stay cold--thus causing frost to linger on colder surfaces and sublime away from warmer surfaces, leaving the dazzling, almost psychedelic pattern seen at the center of this image. Circular features in this view are old craters formed by meteor impact. The brightest patches within most of these circles are fields of sand dunes covered by frost.
Spring Thaw in Northwestern Planum Australe
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Elysium Mons is one of three large volcanoes that occur on the Elysium Rise-- the others are Hecates Tholus (northeast of Elysium Mons) and Albor Tholus (southeast of Elysium Mons). The volcano rises about 12.5 kilometers (7.8 miles) above the surrounding plain, or about 16 kilometers (9.9 miles) above the martian datum-- the "zero" elevation defined by average martian atmospheric pressure and the planet's radius.
Elysium Mons Volcano - Detail of Southern Caldera Wall and Floor
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This is a Mars Orbiter Camera view of the cratered uplands located between the Amenthes Fossae and Hesperia Planum. This ancient, cratered surface sports a covering of windblown dunes and ripples oriented in somewhat different directions. The dunes are bigger and their crests generally run east-west across the image. The ripples are smaller and their crests run in a more north-south direction. The pattern they create together makes some of the dunes almost appear as if they are giant millipedes! This picture covers an area only 3 kilometers (1.9 miles) wide. Illumination is from the top.
Ripples on Cratered Terrain North of Hesperia Planum
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High-resolution images from the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) have revealed small cone-shaped structures on lava flows in southern Elysium Planitia, Marte Valles, and northwestern Amazonis Planitia in the northern hemisphere of the red planet. The most likely interpretation of these cones is that they may be volcanic features known as "pseudo craters" or "rootless cones." They share several key characteristics with pseudo craters on Earth: they are distributed in small clusters independent of structural patterns, are superimposed on fresh lava flows, and they do not appear to have erupted lavas themselves
Possible Rootless Cones or Pseudo craters on Mars
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Tyrrhenna Patera is thought to be an ancient volcano. It is located in Hesperia Planum in the martian southern hemisphere. The Mars Orbiter Camera recently acquired this view of escarpments and valleys on the lower northeast flank of the volcano. Small, bright dunes cover low areas such as valley and crater floors. The picture is illuminated from the lower right and covers an area 3 kilometers (1.9 miles) across.
Lower Northeastern Flank of Tyrrhena Patera
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A color image of the south Chryse basin Valles Marineris outflow channels on Mars; north toward top. The scene shows on the southwest corner the chaotic terrain of the east part of Valles Marineris and two of its related canyons: Eos and Capri Chasmata (south to north). Ganges Chasma lies directly north. The chaos in the southern part of the image gives rise to several outflow channels, Shalbatana, Simud, Tiu, and Ares Valles (left to right), that drained north into the Chryse basin. The mouth of Ares Valles is the site of the Mars Pathfinder lander.

This image is a composite of Viking medium-resolution images in black and white and low-resolution images in color. The image extends from latitude 20 degrees S. to 20 degrees N. and from longitude 15 degrees to 53 degrees; Mercator projection.

The south Chryse outflow channels are cut an average of 1 km into the cratered highland terrain. This terrain is about 9 km above datum near Valles Marineris and steadily decreases in elevation to 1 km below datum in the Chryse basin. Shalbatana is relatively narrow (10 km wide) but can reach 3 km in depth. The channel begins at a 2- to 3-km-deep circular depression within a large impact crater, whose floor is partly covered by a chaotic material, and ends in Simud Valles. Tiu and Simud Valles consist of a complex of connected channel floors and chaotic terrain and extend as far south as and connect to eastern Valles Marineris. Ares Vallis originates from discontinuous patches of chaotic terrain within large craters. In the Chryse basin the Ares channel forks; one branch continues northwest into central Chryse Planitia (Latin for plain) and the other extends north into eastern Chryse Planitia.
Chryse Outflow Channel
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Mars digital-image mosaic merged with color of the MC-29 quadrangle, Eridania region of Mars. The quadrangle is dominated by heavily cratered highlands, with some moderately cratered plains in the central part and large ridge systems in the southern part. The west-central part is marked by a large impact crater, Kepler. Kepler is an ancient remnant of the many large impact events that occurred during the period of heavy bombardment.
MC-29 Eridania Region
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Mars digital-image mosaic merged with color of the MC-10 quadrangle, Lanae Palus region of Mars. The western part is dominated by lava flows of the Tharsis region. The central part includes ridged terrain of Lunae Planum. The west and north borders of Lunae Planum are dissected by the large, relatively young outflow channel, Kasei Vallis, which terminates in Chryse Planitia. Latitude range 0 to 30 degrees, longitude range 45 to 90 degrees.
MC-10 Lanae Palus Region
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Mars digital-image mosaic merged with color of the MC-1 quadrangle, Mare Boreum region of Mars. The central part is covered by a residual ice cap that is cut by spiral-patterned troughs exposing layered terrain. The cap is surrounded by broad flat plains and large dune fields.
MC-1 Mare Boreum Region
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Two astronauts study a rock formation on Mars. One is seen chipping away at a rock. Two vehicles and an outpost are seen in the background.
Astronauts Study Rocks on Mars
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In this artist's concept, a human habitat on Mars is located a short distance from an ascent vehicle that will carry them off the planet later, and a place where fuel is made.
A Habitat on Mars
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In this artist's concept, astronauts work with a rover to unload cargo necessary for their survival.
Astronauts Unload Cargo
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In this artist's concept, astronauts work on their habitat to increase survivability.
A Home on Mars
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In this artist's concept, a full crew of astronauts on Mars salutes in a tribute to humans on Earth.
Astronaut Crew on Mars
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In this artist's concept, an imagined habitat for humans living on Mars, with a rover helper and scientific labs.
Living on Mars
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In this artist's concept, an astronaut returns to the landing site of NASA's Mars Pathfinder mission.
Rover and Astronaut Meet
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In this artist's concept, astronauts search for ancient microbial life on Mars.
Seeking Evidence for Life
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In this artist's concept, an astronaut collects Mars rock samples on the largest shield volcano in the solar system.
Scaling a Volcano
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In this artist's concept, two explorers stop to inspect a robotic lander and its small rover on Mars.
Humans on Mars
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