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As the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) suite of instruments on NASA's Curiosity Mars rover heats a sample, gases are released (or "evolved") from the sample and can be identified using SAM's quadrupole mass spectrometer.
Major Volatiles Released from the Fourth 'John Klein' Portion
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This illustration shows the instruments and subsystems of the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) suite on the Curiosity Rover of NASA's Mars Science Laboratory Project.
The SAM suite
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This image shows the first holes into rock drilled by NASA's Mars rover Curiosity, with drill tailings around the holes plus piles of powdered rock collected from the deeper hole and later discarded after other portions of the sample had been delivered to analytical instruments inside the rover.
Dust from Mars Drilling: Tailings and Discard Piles (Raw Colors - Unannotated)
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This image shows the first holes into rock drilled by NASA's Mars rover Curiosity, with drill tailings around the holes plus piles of powdered rock collected from the deeper hole and later discarded after other portions of the sample had been delivered to analytical instruments inside the rover.
Dust from Mars Drilling: Tailings and Discard Piles (White Balanced - Unannotated)
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This image shows the first holes into rock drilled by NASA's Mars rover Curiosity, with drill tailings around the holes plus piles of powdered rock collected from the deeper hole and later discarded after other portions of the sample had been delivered to analytical instruments inside the rover.
Dust from Mars Drilling: Tailings and Discard Piles
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This sequence of seven images from the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter shows wind-caused changes in the parachute of NASA's Mars Science Laboratory spacecraft as the chute lay on the Martian ground during months after its use in safe landing of the Curiosity rover.
Curiosity's Parachute Flapping in the Wind
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The Neutral Gas and Ion Mass Spectrometer (NGIMS) instrument, shown here at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md., before its integration onto NASA's Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) spacecraft.
MAVEN Neutral and Ion Mass Spectrometer
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An artist's concept of Comet Siding Spring (2013 A1) and Mars. Closest approach to Mars is on October 19, 2014.
A Comet Heads for Mars
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This view of Curiosity's left-front and left-center wheels and of marks made by wheels on the ground in the "Yellowknife Bay" area comes from one of six cameras used on Mars for the first time more than six months after the rover landed.
View From Camera Not Used During Curiosity's First Six Months on Mars
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This diagram illustrates the positions of Mars, Earth and the sun during a period that occurs approximately every 26 months, when Mars passes almost directly behind the sun from Earth's perspective.
Geometry of Mars Solar Conjunction
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The image, at lower left, is annotated to show where the Dynamic Albedo of Neutrons (DAN) instrument on NASA's Mars rover Curiosity took measurement on a rock outcrop (Spot 39) and on loose soil (Spot 40) within the "Yellowknife Bay' area of Mars' Gale Crater.
Variation in Subsurface Water In 'Yellowknife Bay'
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This set of graphs shows variation in the amount and the depth of water detected beneath NASA's Mars rover Curiosity by use of the rover's Dynamic Albedo of Neutrons (DAN) instrument at different points along the distance the rover has driven, in meters.
Variation in Water Content in Martian Subsurface Along Curiosity's Traverse
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The Dynamic Albedo of Neutrons (DAN) instrument on NASA's Mars rover Curiosity detects even very small amounts of water in the ground beneath the rover, primarily water bound into the crystal structure of hydrated minerals.
Two Types of Modeling of Subsurface Water
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This chart graphs measurements made by the Dynamic Albedo of Neutrons (DAN) instrument on NASA's Mars rover Curiosity against the distance the rover has driven, in meters.
Variations of DAN measurements along Curiosity traverse
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This set of images illustrates how the science filters of the Mast Camera (Mastcam) on NASA's Mars rover Curiosity can be used to investigate aspects of the composition and mineralogy of materials on Mars.
Comparing Mastcam and Laboratory Spectra
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This set of images illustrates how the science filters of the Mast Camera (Mastcam) on NASA's Mars rover Curiosity can be used to investigate aspects of the composition and mineralogy of materials on Mars.
Drill Hole Image and Spectra Acquired by Mastcam
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The Mast Camera (Mastcam) on NASA's Mars rover Curiosity showed researchers interesting internal color in this rock called "Sutton_Inlier," which was broken by the rover driving over it.
Bluish Color in Broken Rock in 'Yellowknife Bay'
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The Mast Camera (Mastcam) on NASA's Mars rover Curiosity showed researchers interesting color and patterns in this unnamed rock imaged during the 27th Martian day, or sol, of the rover's work on Mars (Sept. 2, 2012).
Bluish-Black Rock with White 'Crystals' on Mars
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This image of terrain inside Mars' Gale Crater and the inset of the calibration target for the Mast Camera (Mastcam) on NASA's Mars rover Curiosity illustrate how false color can be used to make differences more evident in the materials in the scene.
Using False Color from Curiosity's Mast Camera
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This image of terrain inside Mars' Gale Crater and the inset of the calibration target for the Mast Camera (Mastcam) on NASA's Mars rover Curiosity illustrate how the calibration target aids researchers in adjusting images to estimate "natural" color, or approximately what the colors would look like if we were to view the scene ourselves on Mars, using the known colors of materials on the target.
Using Curiosity's Mast Camera to View Scene in 'Natural' Color
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These three versions of the same image taken by the Mast Camera (Mastcam) on NASA's Mars rover Curiosity illustrate different choices that scientists can make in presenting the colors recorded by the camera.
'Raw,' 'Natural' and 'White-Balanced' Views of Martian Terrain
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The color cameras on NASA's Mars rover Curiosity, including the pair that make up the rover's Mast Camera (Mastcam) instrument, use the same type of Bayer pattern RGB filter as found in typical commercial color cameras.
Filters for Color Imaging and for Science
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This set of images illustrates the twin cameras of the Mast Camera (Mastcam) instrument on NASA's Curiosity Mars rover (upper left), the Mastcam calibration target (lower center), and the locations of the cameras and target on the rover.
Mast Camera and Its Calibration Target on Curiosity Rover
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This close-up view of "Tintina" was taken by the rover's Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) on Sol 160 (Jan. 17, 2013) and shows interesting linear textures in the bright white material on the rock.
Close-up View of Broken Mars Rock 'Tintina'
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On this image of the broken rock called "Tintina," color coding maps the amount of mineral hydration indicated by a ratio of near-infrared reflectance intensities measured by the Mast Camera (Mastcam) on NASA's Mars rover Curiosity.
Hydration Map, Based on Mastcam Spectra, for broken rock 'Tintina'
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