PUBLIC INFORMATION OFFICE
JET PROPULSION LABORATORY
CALIFORNIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION
PASADENA, CALIF. 91109. TELEPHONE (818) 354-5011
Contact: Diane Ainsworth
FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASENov. 4, 1997
MARS PATHFINDER WINDS DOWN AFTER PHENOMENAL MISSION
After operating on the surface of Mars three times longer
than expected and returning a tremendous amount of new information
about the red planet, NASA's Mars Pathfinder mission is winding down.
Flight operators at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena,
CA, made the announcement today after attempting to reestablish
communications with the spacecraft over the last month. With depletion
of the spacecraft's main battery and no success in contacting Mars
Pathfinder via its main or secondary transmitters, the flight team
cannot command the spacecraft or the small rover named Sojourner that
had been roving about the landing site and studying rocks.
"We concede that the likelihood of hearing from the spacecraft
again diminishes with each day," said Pathfinder Project Manager Brian
Muirhead. "We will scale back our efforts to reestablish contact but
not give up entirely.
"Given that, and the fact that Pathfinder is the first of several
missions to Mars, we'll say 'see you later' instead of saying goodbye,"
At the time the last telemetry from the spacecraft was received,
Pathfinder's lander had operated nearly three times its design
lifetime of 30 days, and the Sojourner rover operated 12 times its
design lifetime of seven days.
"I want to thank the many talented men and women at NASA for
making the mission such a phenomenal success. It embodies the spirit of
NASA, and serves as a model for future missions that are faster, better
and cheaper. Today, NASA's Pathfinder team should take a bow, because
America is giving them a standing ovation for a stellar performance,"
said NASA Administrator Daniel S. Goldin.
Since its landing on July 4, 1997, Mars Pathfinder has returned
2.6 billion bits of information, including more than 16,000 images from
the lander and 550 images from the rover, as well as more than 15
chemical analyses of rocks and extensive data on winds and other weather
factors. The only remaining objective was to complete the high-resolution
360-degree image of the landing site called the "Super Pan," of which 83
percent has already been received and is being processed. The last
successful data transmission cycle from Pathfinder was completed at 3:23
a.m. Pacific Daylight Time on Sept. 27, which was Sol 83 of the mission.
"This mission has advanced our knowledge of Mars tremendously and
will surely be a beacon of success for upcoming missions to the red
planet," added Dr. David Baltimore, president of the California Institute
of Technology, which manages JPL for NASA. "Done quickly and within a
very limited budget, Pathfinder sets a standard for 21st century space
The Mars Pathfinder team first began having communications problems
with the spacecraft on Saturday, Sept. 27. After three days of attempting
to reestablish contact, they were able to lock on to a carrier signal from
the spacecraft's auxiliary transmitter on Oct. 1, which meant that the
spacecraft was still operational. They locked on to the same carrier signal
again on Oct. 6, but were not able to acquire data on the condition of the
lander. At that time, the team surmised that the intermittent communications
were most likely related to depletion of the spacecraft's battery and a drop
in the spacecraft's operating temperatures due to the loss of the battery,
which kept the lander functioning at warmer temperatures.
Over the last month the operations team has been working through all
credible problem scenarios and taking a variety of actions to try to recover
the link with Pathfinder. With all of the most plausible possibilities
exhausted, the team plans to continue sending commands and listening for a
spacecraft signal on a less frequent basis.
"Basically we are shifting to a contingency strategy of sending commands
to the lander only periodically, perhaps once a week or once per month," said
Mission Manager Richard Cook. "Normal mission operations are over, but there
is still a small chance of reestablishing a link, so we'll keep trying at a
very low level. "
Although the true cause of the loss of lander communications may never
be known, recent events are consistent with predictions made at the beginning
of the extended mission in early August, Muirhead said. When asked about the
life expectancy of the lander, project team members predicted that the first
thing that would fail on the lander would be the battery; this apparently
happened after the last successful transmission September 27.
After that, the lander would begin getting colder at night and go through
much deeper day-night thermal cycles. Eventually, the cold or the cycling would
probably render the lander inoperable. According to Muirhead, it appears that
this sequence of events has probably taken place. The health and status of the
rover is also unknown, but since initiating its onboard backup operations plan
a month ago, the rover is probably circling the vicinity of the lander,
attempting to communicate with it.
The rover, which went into a contingency modee on Oct. 6, or Sol 92 of
the mission, had completed an alpha proton X-ray spectrometer study of a rock
nicknamed Chimp, to the left of the Rock Garden, when it was last heard from.
The rover team had planned to send the rover on its longest journey yet --
a 50-meter (165-foot)clockwise stroll around the lander -- to perform a series
of technology experiments and hazard avoidance exercises when the communications
outage occurred. That excursion was never initiated once the rover's contingency
software began operating.
Now known as the Sagan Memorial Station, the Mars Pathfinder lander was
designed primarily to demonstrate a low-cost way of delivering a set of science
instruments and a free-ranging rover to the surface of the red planet. Landers
and rovers of the future will share the heritage of spacecraft designs and
technologies first tested in this "pathfinding" mission.
Part of NASA's Discovery program of low-cost planetary missions, the
spacecraft used an innovative method of directly entering the Martian atmosphere.
Assisted by an 11-meter-diameter (36-foot) parachute, the spacecraft descended
to the surface of Mars on July 4 and landed, using airbags to cushion the impact.
The spacecraft's novel entry was successful.
Scientific highlights of the Mars Pathfinder mission are:
Engineering milestones of the mission included demonstrating a new way of
delivering a spacecraft to the surface of Mars by way of direct entry into the
Martian atmosphere. In addition, Mars Pathfinder demonstrated for the first time the
ability of engineers to deliver a semi-autonomous roving vehicle capable of
conducting science experiments to the surface of another planet.
- Martian dust includes magnetic, composite particles, with a
mean size of one micron.
- Rock chemistry at the landing site may be different from
Martian meteorites found on Earth, and could be of basaltic andesite composition.
- The soil chemistry of Ares Vallis appears to be similar to
that of the Viking 1 and 2 landing sites.
- The observed atmospheric clarity is higher than was expected
from Earth-based microwave measurements and Hubble Space
- Dust is confirmed as the dominant absorber of solar radiation
in Mars' atmosphere, which has important consequences for the
transport of energy in the atmosphere and its circulation.
- Frequent "dust devils" were found with an unmistakable
temperature, wind and pressure signature, and morning
turbulence; at least one may have contained dust (on Sol 62),
suggesting that these gusts are a mechanism for mixing dust
into the atmosphere.
- Evidence of wind abrasion of rocks and dune-shaped deposits
was found, indicating the presence of sand.
- Morning atmospheric obscurations are due to clouds, not ground
fog; Viking could not distinguish between these two
- The weather was similar to the weather encountered by Viking
1; there were rapid pressure and temperature variations,
downslope winds at night and light winds in general.
Temperatures were about 10 degrees warmer than those measured
by Viking 1.
- Diversity of albedos, or variations in the brightness of the
Martian surface, was similar to other observations, but there
was no evidence for the types of crystalline hematite or
pyroxene absorption features detected in other locations on
- The atmospheric experiment package recorded a temperature
profile different than expected from microwave measurements
and Hubble observations.
- Rock size distribution was consistent with a flood-related
- The moment of inertia of Mars was refined to a corresponding
core radius of between 1,300 kilometers and 2,000 kilometers
(807 miles and 1,242 miles).
- The possible identification of rounded pebbles and cobbles on
the ground, and sockets and pebbles in some rocks, suggests
conglomerates that formed in running water, during a warmer
past in which liquid water was stable.
The Mars Pathfinder mission is managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for
NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. The mission is the second in the
Discovery program of fast track, low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science
goals. JPL is managed by the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA.